HYBRID EVENT: You can participate in person at Tokyo, Japan or Virtually from your home or work.
Zamzila Kassim, Speaker at Renewable Energy Conferences
University Science of Malaysia, Malaysia
Title : Innovation of green hydrate inhibitor in cryogenic distillation CO 2 separattechnology for safe and sustainable LNG production


PETRONAS has embarked upon a technology development of novel cryogenic distillation separation

technologies to monetize marginal gas fields containing ultrahigh contaminants such as carbon dioxide (CO2) andnitrogen (N2). These new technologies have shown high economic potential under the carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) program. However, one of the main challenges in developing high contaminants field by using cryogenic distillation technology is that it operates at high pressure and very low temperatures, as low as -196C. These high pressure and low temperature conditions are favourable for gas hydrate formation in the presence of water. Gas hydrate formation has caused equipment damage, personal injury, process upset, and gas flow disruptions leading to safety and economic loss. Various hydrate mitigation strategies such as depressurization, direct heating, and chemical injection were implemented in the oil and gas industry. However, conventional mitigation methods are often impractical, especially at high pressure and bigger subcooling conditions. Although known as an effective method, the current commercial chemical injection is unfeasible in offshore applications due to safety concerns as the chemical is easily vaporise and highly flammable. It is a major threat as a high amount of the flammable was stored at the offshore facility. Hence, an innovation of sustainable and effective hydrate inhibitor for hydrate mitigation strategy is needed to design, develop, and optimise the LNG production using cryogenic separation technologies. This paper focuses on the empirical approach to investigate the phenomena of gas hydrate formation and the influence of

relatively green material with a low vapour pressure at a high CO2 concentrations system. Two ammonium-based ionic liquids, namely tetraethylammonium hydroxide and tetraethylammonium chloride, were studied in the thermodynamic and kinetic hydrate phenomena over a range of pressure, temperature, and water content using a high pressure equilibrium Sapphire cell. In addition, the green hydrate inhibitor was compared with the conventional hydrate inhibitor, namely mononethylene glycol (MEG). The result shows that the green hydrate inhibitors have superior performance in high CO2 gas systems than the conventional hydrate inhibitors. It was found that the green hydrate inhibitor possesses dual functionality performance, thermodynamic and kinetic inhibitions towards the high CO2 gas hydrate system. The dual functional hydrate inhibition performance would envision the application of hydrate inhibitor at minimal dosage. The comprehensive set of experimental enables correlation validation to redict the green inhibitor effectiveness within experimental uncertainties accurately. These experimental studies have given a dynamic insight in understanding the scientific phenomena used to design the associated technology for the LNG process and minimising the risk associated with CO2 hydrate formation, resulting in improved safety, sustainability, and economical natural gas field development.

Audience take away:

  • The audience will be able to gain knowledge on the gas hydrate mitigation strategy via “green” chemical in high CO2/natural gas mixture.
  • The audience will be benefited from transitioning to the new economic, safe, and sustainable strategies as compared to the conventional approach in hydrate mitigation for high CO2, low temperature separation process.
  • The audience will be exposed to the practical solutions on designing the hydrate inhibitor from other “green” chemical other than conventional approach
  • The audience will learn on the vapour-liquid-solid (hydrate) static analytic measurement using high pressure Sapphire-cell used for the measurement of hydrate inhibitor effectiveness
  • The audience will be presented on the thermodynamic and kinetics behaviour findings of CO2 gas hydrate with and without the presence of gas hydrate inhibitor in the system
  • The audience will learn on the influence of “green” chemical towards safety and economic value during the design stage of cryogenic distillation processes especially in high CO2 concentration conditions
  • The audience will be able to broaden their research strategy on hydrate inhibitor study



Zamzila Kassim graduate in Chemical Engineering from the University Science of Malaysia. As a PETRONAS scholar she then joined PETRONAS in 2008 as a process engineer and later joining PETRONAS Group Research & Technology in 2012. She then pursuing her master study in hydrate research area under the supervision of Dr Bhajan Lal at the Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS. She received her master’s degree in 2020 while working full time as a researcher in PETRONAS. She also obtained Professional Technologist from Malaysia Board of Technology (MBOT) based on her vast experience in oil and gas  industry. She now has more than 10 years experiences working in hydrate research, cryogenic separation process, process optimization and refrigeration with more than 20 research articles as author and co-author.