Title : High performing electrode active sustainable cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries
Abstract: High performing pristine undoped LiMn2O4 and doped LiMn1.99MO4 (M = Cu0.01-0.10, Mg0.01-0.10, Tb0.01, Dy0.01, Ho0.01, Er0.01) cathode materials have been synthesised via facile green chemistry method using p-Toluenesulfonic acid as chelating agent in order to obtain sub-micron sized particles for fast lithium ion diffusion during the intercalation and de-intercalation process. The synthesized cathode materials are subjected so as to deduce the structural properties using various physical studies viz., Thermo gravimetric analysis (TG/DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDAX) and electrochemical studies such as charge-discharge, and Differential Capacity curves (dQ/dE). X-ray Diffraction peaks confirm the high degree of crystallinity with better phase purity of single phase compound. The DTA curve depicts a limpid exothermic peak at 330.80º C confirming the formation of spinel compound. SEM picture of the undoped spinel depicts the appealing and astounding uniform spherical grain surface morphology with an average particle size of 0.1µm. Also, SEM photograph of LiCu0.01Mg0.01Mn1.98O4 shows the cluster of grapes appearance with 0.2 µm. TEM analysis of the undoped spinel depicts good ice cube morphology with particle size of 0.2 µm (200 nm). However, in the case of LiCu0.01Mg0.01Mn1.98O4, it shows good agglomerated particles. EDAX peaks of all undoped and doped spinels clearly substantiate the precise compositions are present in the given compounds without any impurities. Results of the first cycle charge-discharge behaviour of the undoped spinel exhibit a maximum discharge capacity of 130 mAh/g against the charging capacity of 150 mAh/g. In the case of Disprosium (Dy) doped spinel, it delivers the discharging capacity of 125 mAh/g against the charging capacity of 146 mAh/g. In the Differential capacity curves (dQ/dE), the undoped spinel exhibits a higher peak current than that of doped spinel which leads to high performance of the compound.
Lithium ion batteries are the current state-of-the-art for any application ranging from electronic toys, to commercial vehicles, medical devices and space applications. Hence, my talk will be useful to concentrate the high performing and sustainable cathode materials for audience to improve the battery performance and subsequently towards the industrial development.