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6th Edition of International Conference on

Materials Science and Engineering

March 18-20, 2024 | Singapore

Materials 2024

Jaroslaw Milewski

Speaker at Materials Science and Engineering 2024 - Jaroslaw Milewski
Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Title : Molten borates fuel cells — Mathematical modeling and identification of performances


The article presents an overview of the possibilities of using boron-containing compounds as electrolytes for fuel cells. The main assumption here is to develop a MCFC-type (Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell) power source, where the molten electrolyte is kept by a ceramic matrix between the electrodes. In the cases which are described in the paper, attempts were made to develop electrolytes based on borates. Whereas the available literature contains very little information on this subject, it was possible to identify several promising compounds and to extrapolate their performance to higher temperatures. Literature data on the temperature at eutectic points suggest that the operating range of such electrolytes is at a level like the MCFC. The article presents a proposal for a mathematical model of a new type of fuel cell based on molten borates. The mathematical model is based on the Reduced Order approach, supplemented with the influence of the ceramic matrix on the resulting ionic conductivity of the electrolyte layer. The model was used to determine potential performances for a few selected borates and a sensitivity analysis of selected geometric parameters was performed for the best of them. The results obtained were compared against the standard molten carbonate fuel cell.

 Audience Take Away Notes:

  • An overview of molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs), their components, and how they function. This knowledge is foundational in understanding the context of the proposed borate-based electrolyte
  • The theoretical potential of boron-containing compounds, specifically borates, as alternative electrolytes in MCFCs. This includes an understanding of the relevant temperature ranges and ionic conductivities
  • The Reduced Order approach for creating mathematical models of complex systems, and how this approach was used to simulate the performance of borate electrolytes
  • The process and findings of a sensitivity analysis performed on selected borate electrolytes, specifically how changes in geometric parameters affect fuel cell performance
  • Comparison and possible advantages/disadvantages of borate electrolytes versus traditional MCFC electrolytes


Prof. Jaroslaw Milewski works at the Warsaw University of Technology's Faculty of Power and Aeronautical Engineering, specifically in the Institute of Heat Engineering. He serves as the Head of the Power Division at the Institute of Heat Engineering, Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Power Technologies, and a Member of the Editorial Board of Applied Energy. Prof. Milewski also holds the position of Director of the Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Center at the Institute of Applied Research. His expertise includes fuel cell research (Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells–MCFC and Solid Oxide Fuel Cells–SOFC) as well as other power sources, hybrid systems, advanced power systems (hydrogen-based), and steam/gas turbine power generation systems.