Optical materials are usually conceived of as transparent materials, i.e., materials that transmit light well in specific spectral bands while absorbing and scattering light minimally. Absorption, on the other hand, can be used for optical filters, and light scattering is also used in some applications.
Electronic materials are materials that are primarily studied and exploited for their electrical properties. The electric response of materials is largely determined by electron movements and their interactions with atoms and molecules. According to its response to an external electric field, a material can be classed as a conductor, semiconductor, or insulator.
Magnetic materials are materials that have magnetic properties and are studied and used for that reason. The magnetic dipole moment associated with the intrinsic angular momentum, or spin, a material's electrons determines much of its magnetic response.
A plasmonic material is one that uses surface plasmon resonance phenomena to produce optical qualities that aren't found in nature. The interaction of light with metal-dielectric materials causes a collective oscillation of free electrons, resulting in surface plasmon resonance.