Title : Food and Nutraceutical uses of Andean Crops in South American Andes
Andean grains: quinoa, amaranth and cañihua, Andean tubers: izaño, oca, olluco and Andean roots: maca, llacón and arracacha and its wild relatives, constitute staple food and medicine of the Andean man, for the ideal balance of essential amino acids, active substances, qualities nutraceutical, orthomolecular, anti-aging, medicinal and other nutrients they contain for normal development and growth. The research methodology used was the accompaniment and exchange of knowledge with information flow and ethnographic approach (continuous ethnobotanical-anthropological exploration, with bilateral and multilateral exchange of knowledge) in communities Andeans, during ten agricultural campaigns (2009 to 2019), the medicinal uses given to quinoa, kiwicha and cañihua are: for bone fracture treatments, twists, dislocations, shocks and strong bones (contains more Ca than corn and rice, being easily absorbed), avoids melancholy and sadness about the lithium content, are galactogenic increasing the milk secretion of prevents cancer to the uterus and menopause problems by containing phytoestrogens (daidzein and cinesteine), preventing osteoporosis, organic and functional alterations that produce a lack of estrogen, contributes to the cure of TBC by having protein from high biological value, ideal balance of essential amino acids and high lysine, being its role to shape the cells, tissues and organs that make up the human body, regulates cholesterol levels by the high content of dietary fiber and unsaturated fatty acids (oleic, linolenic, linoleic), since 6% of the total weight of the grain is fiber, favoring its intestinal transit, contains antioxidants: betalains, betazhanins, necessary to preserve health, is energy source for muscles, brain and nervous system, for containing Alanine, also possesses Glycine that acts as a calming neurotransmitter of the brain, regulating motor functions and proline, amino acid involved in joint repair and to heal lesions; anemia, altitude sickness (cañihua) because of its content of faith; saponin avoids polyglobulin due to its emolytic action; while Mashua, has powerful anti-inflammatory and anafrodisiac activity (decreases testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in the blood), eliminates kidney, antifungal and antibacterial stones, against anemia due to its content of faith, traps free radicals (stress, pollution and fats), beneficial effect on the immune system (glucosinolates: glupotropaelopside and isothiacyanates), antioxidant and diuretic; counteracts kidney problems, inflammation and prostate cancer, being powerful anti-inflammatory and containing glucosinolates; Olluco's to relieve fever, deflating blows, Oca to prevent cancer of the colon (Ocatín), burning and heartburn. Maca, llacon and arracaha Andean roots, are used as a staple food and medicine by the Andean man, due to its protein (Macatina) with an ideal balance of essential amino acids, minerals, vitamins, antioxidant activity (glucosinolates, sterols, isoflavones, polyphenols, alcaloids, anthocyanins, lutein, beta-carotene, fatty acids), nutraceutical, medicinal, active and nutrient-containing qualities. The medicinal uses of the maca are: for benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) treatments, sexual dysfunction, improved libido and increased sperm in the deferential duct and fertility in both men and women, favorable effects in pre, post and menopausal women, raising levels of female hormone estradiol, involved in proper sexual and reproductive functioning; depression and anxiety reducing spikes in depression and anxiety; as well as psychological symptoms in postmenopausal women, stress, attenuating and even eliminating variations of the physiological imbalance caused by stress, giving an adaptogenic role, osteoporosis, preventing bone loss, with fewer fractures bone; organ protector regulated by steroid hormones, antiviral against type A and B virus, glucose level control, physical endurance; being the distinct colors for each treatment.