Title : Utilization of cowpea flour in the nutritional enrichment of the bread produced by mixing wheat and cassava flours
Bread is one of the most consumed foods in the world and many studies are conducted to improve its nutritional value or to attend consumers with nutritional diseases, economic restrictions, trade demands, new consumption trends and eating habits. Cowpea has high nutritional value and in Mozambique is one of the main sources of protein in the communities. The objective of this work was to use the cowpea flour in the nutritional enrichment of the bread produced by mixing wheat and cassava flours. Six bread formulations were defined by weight of wheat/cassava/cowpea: 100:0:0 (Standard); 85:0:15% (F1); 90:15:0% (F2); 85:10:5% (F3); 80:10:10% (F4); F5:75:10:15% (F5), respectively. Moisture, protein, carbohydrate, lipid and ash, shelf life, weight loss were determined. Sensory attributes were determined using untrained tasters. The addition of cowpea flour intensified the golden colour of the crust and changed the characteristic aroma of wheat flour to that of cowpea flour. Weight losses for mixed flour breads were lower than that of standard bread, except formulation F3. An increase in protein, lipid, mineral and crude fibres contents was observed in breads enriched with cowpea flour, except in carbohydrate contents. Formulation F3 had a higher acceptability rate of 76% than other formulations. The bread stored at room temperature (25 ± 2oC) had a shelf life of at least 5 days and when kept in refrigeration (5 ± 2oC) 10 days. It was concluded that the incorporation of cowpea flour improves the nutritional value of wheat and cassava mixed bread.