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Kawkab Kh al Naimi, Speaker at Pharmaceutical Congress 2022
Qatar University, Qatar
Title : The Discovery of the First Red Geopolymer


Before the discovery of the so-called red geopolymer, or the ferro-sialate geopolymer, for many years, the idea of including iron in the then-known geopolymer structure matrix was an in forgivable absurd or wrong proposition. Despite its absurdity, the scientific and technical community working in geopolymeric cement chemistry has widely accepted this view. In 2003, Dr. Kawkab al-Naimi proposed a working hypothesis, in which she established a close relationship between iron and the geo-polymer structure, by introducing a new raw material containing iron in the right proportions leading to show that iron cation entry actually enhanced and strengthened the geopolymer structure. This hypothesis has become uniform and serves as a basis for the development of a new type of geopolymer, called "red or ferro-sialate geopolymeric cement". This paper reviews the most important theoretical explanations of the role iron played in shaping the structure of the "ferro-sialate or red geopolymer". The exploitation of the geological resource that constitute the ferralitic rock/soil that suitable for the creation of the geopolymeric cement of the type (Na, K, Ca)-poly (ferro-sialate), was the aim of the red geopolymer finder.  The work covers the mechanical and some of the physical properties of the quality red geopolymer pastes, which reached compressive strength of (150 MPa) at ≥30 days, the top compressive strength recorded until now and (56.34 MPa) at 4745 days (13 Years).  It ends with a broad overview of the diversity of this type of material for industrial applications and a discussion of the possibility of building on existing legislation to meet the need for future regulation of cement and concrete for "red geopolymer" or "ferro-sialate geopolymer".