Title : Herbs - A novel weapon for drug therapy in treatment of cancers with reference to oral carcinoma
Presently, cancer one of the most prevalent types of disease is a growing health problem around the world and is the leading cause of death. According to a recent report of W.H.O from a total of 58 million deaths worldwide, cancer accounted for 13%. Worldwide, there are now more than 10 million cases of cancer per year. Oral cancer is now considered to be the most important contributor of increase in cancer morbidity and mortality rate, it develops in multistep process from pre-existing potentially malignant lesions. The most common precancer is Leukoplakia which represents 85% of such lesions and 95% of oral cancers are oral squamous cell carcinomas. Candida albicans has been also identified as a possible factor in development of oral leukoplakia and its malignant transformation. It contributes many virulence attributes like adherence to host tissue and release of some hydrolytic enzymes. There are no drugs which can effect extremely to treat oral cancers. There is a general call for new emerging drugs that are highly effective towards cancer, possess low toxicity, and have a minor environment impact. Novel natural products offer opportunities for innovation in drug discovery. For instance, over half of all anticancer prescription drugs approved internationally between the 1940s and 2006 were natural products or their derivatives. The use of herbs and medicinal plants as the first medicines is a universal phenomenon. Natural compounds isolated from medicinal plants, as rich sources of novel anticancer drugs, have been of increasing interest. Traditional medicinal herbs have been used for pharmaceutical and dietary therapy for several millennia in East Asia, for example, in China, Japan, India, Thailand, and are currently widely used in cancer therapy. The alarming reports of cancer cases increase the awareness amongst the clinicians and researchers pertaining to investigate newer drug with low toxicity. The purpose of this paper is to introduce some newly discovered plants having cancer prevention and treatment properties. This study was done on 220 clinically isolated samples. To investigate or find the cheapest mode of cancer treatment from our natural environment like herbs leaves of selected plants (Lawsonia inermis, Withania somnifer, Swertia chirata, Curcuma longa, Cymbopogon citrates, Tamarindus indica, Limonia acidissima, Psidium guajana, Annona reticulate, Cuminum cyminum, Euphorbia hirta, Pogostemon parviflorus, Adenocalymma alliacum, Echinophora platybola and stem of Zingiber officinale) have been collected. In the present study leaves extract of mentioned plants have been prepared in ethanol, methanol and DMSO solutions at various concentrations. MIC (Minimum inhibitory concentration) was calculated which acts as expectorant and not having toxic properties. Various bioactivities of phenolic compounds from these herbs are responsible for their chemopreventive properties (e.g., antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antipathogenic and anti-inflammatory effects) and some inhibits the enzyme activities like histidine etc., responsible for malignant transformation. The purpose of this study was to create directly comparable, quantitative data and to find component for treatment of oral carcinoma. The effective herbs can be used to treat cancer at very low costs by using the effective herbal components as drugs. These findings will further help to develop the new drugs for treatment.