Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in men. Worldwide, 1 of 7 men will be diagnosed with the disease at some time in their lives. Population-based non-invasive screening tests for prostate cancer did not definitively prove to affect disease-specific mortality and generated considerable debate within the medical community. Much of this debate is due to the low accuracy of the serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test for early diagnosis of the disease. Intensive efforts are currently directed towards search of alternative biomarkers for early prostate cancer detection and prognosis. Particularly those that can recognise disease aggressiveness and tumor size are looked-for. We review recent advances in the discovery of prostate cancer biomarkers and present a novel method of prostate cancer detection based on a set of chemical elements, which could lead to a paradigm shift in the non-invasive diagnostic of the prostate cancer. We discuss and impact of the novel biomarkers on clinical practice, disease management and cancer research.