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6th Edition of International Conference on

Materials Science and Engineering

March 18-20, 2024 | Singapore

Materials 2022

Ephraim Suhir

Speaker at Materials Science and Engineering 2022 - Ephraim Suhir
Portland State University, United States

Title : Burn in Testing BIT in Electronics Manufacturing To BIT or Not to BIT Thats the Question


Analytical ("mathematical") predictive modeling enables shading useful light on what and how should be tested, if at all, and how to improve the burn-in-testing (BIT) process, if decided upon, in electronics manufacturing.  Three predictive models have been developed and addressed in this presentation, and the following information has been obtained. 1) Analysis of the infant mortality portion (IMP) of the bathtub curve (BTC) of the particular manufacturing technology suggests that the (non-random) time-derivative of the expected "favorable" (i.e., characterized by a decreasing failure rate with time) statistical failure rate (SFR) at the beginning of the IMP (this failure rate is, in a way, opposite to the "unfavorable" physical failure rate (PFR) associated with material degradation and aging; this process commences at the later stages of the BTC, is characterized by an increasing failure rate with time, and is not considered in our analysis) could be viewed as a suitable criterion that enables answering the basic question of the BIT undertaking: “to BIT or not to BIT?”. Indeed, if this derivative is zero or next-to-zero, i.e., if the IMP of the BTC is parallel to the horizontal (time) axis, the IMP does not exist and no BIT is necessary. In the opposite extreme situation, when this derivative is significant, i.e., when the initial portion of the IMP of the BTC "clings" to the vertical (failure rate) axis of the BTC, the "freaks", although do exist in the manufactured population, could be easily removed by applying low level and short-in-time failure-oriented-accelerated testing.  2) Analysis of the random failure rate (RFR) of the mass-produced components that the manufactured product of interest is comprised of suggests that the above derivative is, in effect, the variance of this failure rate; the reliability of these components is seldom available, i.e. typically uncertain, and could very well vary from zero to infinity; we derived a formula for the SFR of the manufactured product based on the probability distribution of the RFR of the mass-produced components and carried our calculations for the case, when this distribution is normal. 3) Analysis based  on the multi-parametric Boltzmann-Arrhenius-Zhurkov (BAZ) constitutive equation introduced by the author about a decade ago and applied in a number of publications enables establishing the BIT’s adequate duration and level, if this kind of testing is found to be necessary. The theoretical concepts and findings are illustrated by calculated data. It is concluded that predictive modeling should always precede the actual BIT, that analytical modeling should complement computer simulations and that future work should address the experimental validation and possible extension of the obtained results and recommendations.  

What will audience learn from your presentation?

  • Explain how the audience will be able to use what they learn?
  • Understand better the reliability physics of the burn-in-testing process in electronics manufacturing
  • Consider means for improving this process, and particularly what could possibly be done to eliminate "freaks" without damaging the "healthy" population of the manufactured products
  • Consider means for making the BIT process time and cost effective
  • Although the presentation does not dot the i's and cross the t's, as far as the BIT process is concerned, it nonetheless sheds useful light on several critical features of this process by providing new and non-obvious information to assist in the addressed manufacturing problem


Ephraim Suhir is on the faculty of the Portland State University, Portland, OR, USA, Technical University, Vienna, Austria and James Cook University, Queensland, Australia. He is also CEO of a Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) ERS Co. in Los Altos, CA, USA, is Foreign Full Member (Academician) of the National Academy of Engineering, Ukraine (he was born in that country); Life Fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), the Society of Optical Engineers (SPIE), and the International Microelectronics and Packaging Society  (IMAPS);  Fellow of the American Physical Society (APS), the Institute of Physics (IoP), UK, and the Society of Plastics Engineers (SPE); and Associate Fellow of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA). Ephraim has authored about  500 publications (patents, technical papers, book chapters, books), presented numerous keynote and invited talks worldwide, and received many professional awards, including 1996 Bell Laboratories Distinguished Member of Technical Staff (DMTS) Award (for developing effective methods for predicting the reliability of complex structures used in AT&T and Lucent Technologies products), and 2004 ASME Worcester Read Warner Medal (for outstanding contributions to the permanent literature of engineering and laying the foundation of a new discipline “Structural Analysis of Electronic Systems”). Ephraim is the third “Russian American”, after S. Timoshenko and I. Sikorsky, who received this prestigious award. His most recent awards are 2019 IEEE Electronic Packaging Society (EPS) Field award for seminal contributions to mechanical reliability engineering and modeling of electronic and photonic packages and systems and 2019 Int. Microelectronic Packaging Society’s (IMAPS) Lifetime Achievement award for making exceptional, visible, and sustained impact on the microelectronics packaging industry and technology.

Research Interests 

  • Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, Applied and Mathematical Physics
  • Analytical (Mathematical) Modeling in Applied Science and Engineering
  • Materials Science and Engineering
  • Aerospace and Automotive Electronics and Photonics
  • Design for Reliability (DfR) of Electronic, Opto-Electronic and Photonic Assemblies, Packages and Systems
  • Applied Probability and Probabilistic DfR (PDfR) of Electronic and Photonic Materials, Devices and Systems
  • Photonics, Fiber Optics, Mechanics of Optical Fibers 
  • Thin Film Mechanics and Physics
  • Shock and Vibration Analyses and Testing
  • Dynamic Response of Materials and Structures to Shocks and Vibrations
  • Thermal Stress Analysis in Electronics and Photonics, Prediction and Prevention of Thermal Stress Failures
  • Solder Materials and Solder Joint Interconnections in Electronic and Photonic Engineering
  • Polymeric Materials in Electronics and Photonics
  • Photovoltaic and Thermo-Electric Modules: Physical Design for Reliability
  • Stretchable (Large Area) Electronics and Photonics: Physical Design for Reliability
  • Lattice-Misfit Systems: Stress Analysis and Reliability Evaluations
  • Technical Diagnostics, Prognostics and Health Monitoring (PHM)
  • Vehicular (Aerospace, Automotive, Maritime, Railroad) Electronics and Photonics: Design for Reliability
  • “Human-in-the-Loop”: Human-System Interaction and Integration, with an emphasis on analytical modeling