Title : Nanomaterials in improving micropropagation and breeding techniques of horticultural plants
Exposure of plants to engineered nanoparticles is a novel trend and still not a fully explored area of research, especially for horticultural purposes. The performed studies aimed to analyze the usefulness of silver, gold, and zinc oxide nanoparticles in the improvement of micropropagation and breeding techniques of selected, worldwide popular, and economically important ornamentals and vegetable crops.
The effects of silver and gold nanoparticles (spherical; 20 nm-in-size; 10 and 30 ppm) on the efficiency of in vitro adventitious organogenesis in Chrysanthemum × grandiflorum (Ramat.) Kitam. ‘Bydgoszczanka’, Gerbera × jamesonii H. Bol ‘Suri’, and Streptocarpus × hybridus Voss. were assessed. Chrysanthemum shoot fragments and gerbera rosettes cultured on the media supplemented with silver nanoparticles regenerated less adventitious roots than the control explants non-treated with nanoparticles. The regenerated roots were also of the smallest area and diameter, but the length of the longest root was the highest in the experiment. As for gerbera, the highest efficiency of adventitious roots formation was found as a result of gold nanoparticles application at the concentration of 10 ppm. Chrysanthemum roots on the media with 10 and 30 ppm of gold nanoparticles had the highest values of root diameter. The most efficient stimulation of adventitious shoots regeneration on the leaf explants in S. × hybridus was reported when 10 ppm silver or gold nanoparticles were added to the culture medium.
In the other experiment, silver nanoparticles (spherical; 20 nm-in-size; 5, 10, and 20 ppm) were added to the medium for adventitious shoots regeneration from internodes in chrysanthemum ‘Lilac Wonder’. Nanoparticles affected the content of chlorophylls, carotenoids, and phenolic compounds in plant tissues, and, at the highest concentration tested, the inhibition of shoots regeneration was reported. In vitro rooted shoots were subjected to phenotype and genotype stability evaluation during cultivation in the glasshouse. Phenotype mutations concerning variations in the inflorescence color or shape were detected in six plants; one from 10 ppm and five from 20 ppm silver nanoparticles treatments. Polymorphic loci were detected in 12 and 9 silver nanoparticles-treated-plants by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter sequence simple repeat (ISSR) markers, respectively. Therefore, it was demonstrated that silver nanoparticles may be an attractive and easy-to-apply alternative to other commonly used mutagens in breeding.
The next study aimed to investigate the effects of ZnO nanoparticles (homogeneous spherical morphology; 30 nm-in-size) at the concentrations of 50, 100, 200, 400, 800, 1600, and 3200 mg?L−1 on the process of in vitro seed germination and seedling growth in onion (Allium cepa L. ‘Sochaczewska’). The highest share of germinating seeds was found for 800 mg?L-1 ZnO nanoparticles. It was demonstrated that zinc oxide nanoparticles, at the concentration range from 50 to 1600 mg?L−1, can be used to stimulate the germination of onion seeds, without negatively affecting the growth and development of seedlings.
The statistically proven effects of nanoparticles on the efficiency of in vitro propagation or variation induction in ornamental and vegetable plants, not only encourage undertaking further research in this area but can be directly implemented in horticultural practice.
What will audience learn from your presentation
- The results of our studies provide a better understanding of the effects of nanoparticles on plants at the biometrical, biochemical, genetic, and phenotype levels.
- The results can find practical application in the micropropagation and breeding of horticultural plants.
- The possibility of establishing worldwide scientific cooperation with other scientists and employees of the economic sector.