Title : Proinflammatory cytokines and immunocompetent cells response during COPD exacerbation
The cigarette smoke is the main reason for developing COPD, since this external irritant activates receptor cells of the innate immunity and this in turn leads to synthesis and release of proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-1, and IL-6. Regulatory T-lymphocytes participate in the proinflammatory process by secretion of IL-10 and the TGF- β. It was found that IL-10 levels are inversely associated with severity of COPD. However, there are no definitive results on comparative studies of local proinflammatory and immunosuppressive cytokines during exacerbation of COPD. The study included 104 COPD patients. The control group included 98 healthy individuals. Results of the study found that COPD exacerbation lead to high inflammatory activity at local level. A significant (p<0.001) increase in local levels of proinflammatory (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α) and immunosuppressive (IL-10, TGF-β) cytokines was observed in COPD patients in comparison with the control group. In our opinion, this means that immunosuppressive activity on immunocompetent (ICT) cells is preserved in spite of increased activity during the exacerbation period of COPD.Our data indicate the presence of synergism in the level of pro-inflammatory and suppressive cytokines locally (COPD patientsIL-1β 102.3±39.3*; IL-6-93.3±30.1*; TNF-α 66.2±20.9* and control IL-1β-14.9±9.6;IL-6 11.1±4.7;TNF-α 25.7±6.1 inpg/ml, p<0.001) compared with the control group without lung pathology.Next stageof this paperwas to analyzeoftheICTcellcompositionofterminalbronchiolesinCOPD patients -10 and volunteers–6 persons. Histological samples originated from COPDpatients who had been operated on account of bullous emphysema. IHC studies were performed by using primary monoclonal antibodies of mouse to Ki-67 (proliferation index), CD3, CD4, CD8, CD20, CD45, CD45R0 and CD68 (DAKO, Denmark) and EnVision + System-HRP imaging systems (DAB) IHC peroxidase method. The data obtained in the experiment was statistically processed using “Minitab 16” statistical software.The results of the study have shown that in COPD there was a significant increased (p <0.001) of infiltration of the terminal bronchioles to compared to control by common T-lymphocytes (CD3+),T-helpers (CD4+) and cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CD8+) content.At the local level of the immune response during COPD does not depend on migration of macrophages (CD68 +), B-lymphocytes (CD20+), CD45+cells, CD45RO + cells and Ki67+ cells into the inflammation area. The importance of the application of this data based both on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the local response of CD4+ and CD8+T-lymphocyte subpopulations is undeniable. With the advent of the new Delta strain of the COVID-19 virus, COPD patients are faced with increased risk of severe course of disease and morbidity. At this time, there is no effective immunotherapy available for this hazard and the only line of defense is vaccination, which causes adverse reactions in some cases. Therefore, there is great demand for immunotherapy findings.