Title : Dietary patterns and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: A systematic review of observational and interventional studies
Background & Aims: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease that may progress to hepatocellular carcinoma. Dietary intake strongly influences its development and should be a component of any prevention and treatment plan strategy. Dietary pattern analysis enables the investigation of overall diet and permits taking interactions and cumulative effects of dietary components into account. The current study aimed to systematically review observational studies and intervention trials to ascertain the association between dietary patterns consumed and NAFLD.
Methods: A systematic review of articles published up to September 2021 identified 27 relevant observational and 19 interventional studies from 16 countries. A comprehensive search was conducted in PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane library.
Results: Several studies reported that healthy dietary patterns such as the Mediterranean diet, which includes more fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, nuts, olive oil, poultry, and fish, can prevent and improve NAFLD. Further, these healthy patterns contained relatively low amounts of red and processed meat, high-fat dairy, and refined carbohydrates or added sugar. A low-carbohydrate diet is effective in preventing and treatment of NAFLD, however, we need more research on the low-fat diet and the type of fats.
Conclusions: Adherence to a healthy dietary pattern or a low-carbohydrate diet is associated with a lower risk of NAFLD and may reverse its progression.