The process of collecting and evaluating data to establish the reason of a failure, usually with the objective of determining corrective actions or liabilities, is known as failure analysis. It is a significant discipline in many fields of the manufacturing industry, such as the electronics industry, where it is a crucial tool for developing new products and improving old ones. The failure analysis process begins with the collection of failed components, which are then examined using a variety of technologies, including microscopy, to determine the cause or reasons of failure.
Failure analysis can be used as a technique for both prevention and troubleshooting in the development of new products and the refinement of current ones. To avoid product failures, there are two strategies that can be applied, Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) and Failure Modes Effects Analysis (FMEA).