Cell culture is a commonly utilized in vitro approach for furthering our understanding of cell biology, tissue morphology, and disease causes, as well as medication action, protein production, and tissue engineering development. The majority of cancer biology research is conducted in vitro utilizing two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures. 2D cultures, on the other hand, have a number of drawbacks, including disruption of interactions between the cellular and extracellular environments, changes in cell shape, polarity, and division mechanism. These drawbacks prompted the development of models that are better suited to simulate in vivo situations. Three-dimensional culture is one such way (3D). Optimising culture conditions could lead to a better knowledge of cancer biology and make biomarkers and targeting medicines more accessible.
Most analysts are familiar with the traditional approach of 2D cell culture, which has been used since the early 1900s. On a flat surface, such as the bottom of a petri dish or flask, it entails securing, nourishing, and developing cell cultures. 2D cell culture systems are well-established and well-proven — they're used in practically all current standard experiments and have a large body of literature to back them up. Because most existing procedures are based on the 2D culture model, 2D cultures and related equipment are very inexpensive and simple to operate. However, due to the fact that cells in the body do not typically grow in a 2D form, substantial work with 2D culture systems in both research and production has revealed that the technique can have difficulties.
3D culture settings are more similar to a cell's natural environment; therefore, they can provide more physiologically meaningful data, which enhances cell culture accuracy and flexibility. A vessel, culture media, and, in many situations, a scaffold, as well as the appropriate cell feeding and incubation conditions, are necessary to support cell development in three dimensions. A vessel and culture conditions capable of supporting three-dimensional cell formation and growth can open up a whole new range of uses.