A bioreactor is a type of fermentation vessel used to produce a wide range of chemicals and biological reactions. It's a closed container with enough aeration, agitation, temperature, and pH control, as well as a drain or overflow vent for removing the waste biomass of cultured microorganisms and their products. Bioreactors are used to produce biomass, metabolites, and antibiotics, among other things. A bioreactor's design and manner of operation are determined by the organism's production, the optimum conditions required for intended product formation, product value, and scale of production. A good bioreactor design will aid in increasing production and delivering higher-quality products at cheaper costs. Bioreactor development dates back to ancient cultures' use of microbes to ferment and enhance foods and beverages. Bioreactors have been widely used in a variety of fields since the invention of submerged fermentation, including cell culture and tissue engineering in the healthcare sector, wastewater treatment in the environmental protection sector, the production of high-value pharmaceuticals and bulk chemicals in industrial biotechnology, and even the cultivation of algae for oxygen generation in space exploration. Bioreactors of various types have been widely used in environmental protection. The creation of novel bioreactor geometries and process control strategies, as well as the growth of the physical structure of the control system, was spurred by strong demand in the field.