A biosensor is an analytical device in which a biologically derived recognition is coupled to a transducer, to allow the quantitative development of some complex biochemical parameter. The device is formed from a transducer and a biological element which will be an enzyme, an antibody or a macromolecule. The bioelement intefere with the analyte being tested and the biological and chemical response is converted into an electrical signal by the transducer. Based on their particular application, biosensors also are considered to as immunosensors, optrodes, resonant mirrors, chemical canaries, biochips, glucometers and biocomputers.
• Nucleic acids
• Proteins including enzymes and antibodies. Antibody-based biosensors are also called immunosensors.
• Plant proteins or lectins
• Complex materials like microorganisms and organelles