Tissue engineering aims to develop living, autologous neo tissues that can be utilized to repair or replace sick, damaged, or congenitally missing tissues. Implantation is a one-of-a-kind event in mammalian development in which an exchange interface between the embryo and the maternal tissues is established. In the mid-1980s, tissue engineering was promoted as a novel and promising field. The ability of cells to migrate and multiply in a growth-inducing medium sparked a lot of excitement about the possibility of creating custom-shaped bio constructs for tissue regeneration. Tissue engineering is a unique multidisciplinary translational arena in which biomaterial engineering concepts, cell and gene molecular biology, and clinical reconstructive sciences will interact extensively thanks to the joint efforts of scientists, engineers, and clinicians. However, due to the inherent complexity of human tissues, the speed of translation of in vitro tissue engineering sciences into clinical reality is quite slow, despite the high hopes. The timing in which tissue engineering will be successfully adopted into our clinical practice will be determined by the regulated induction of vascular networks using ex vivo or in situ techniques. To avoid the invasion of undesired tissues, an ex vivo technique would necessitate quick reperfusion once the regenerated tissue was 'transplanted' in situ. This would be practically possible if macroscopic blood vessels could be grown ex vivo within the construct and then microsurgically linked to a vascular pedicle – artery and vein – at the recipient site.