Dental caries, often known as tooth decay, is one of the most common chronic diseases afflicting people all over the world; people are susceptible to it throughout their lives. Dental caries develops over time as a result of a complicated interaction between acid-producing bacteria, fermentable carbohydrates, and a variety of host components such as teeth and saliva. This can result in a cavity, which is a small hole in a tooth. Dental decay, if left untreated, can cause infection, pain, and even tooth loss. People of all ages, from children to the elderly, can get dental decay once they have teeth. Physical, biological, environmental, behavioural, and lifestyle factors increase the risk of caries include excessive levels of cariogenic bacteria, insufficient salivary flow, insufficient fluoride exposure, poor mouth hygiene, improper baby feeding practices, and poverty.