Oral pathology is a specialty within dental science that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases that affect the oral cavity. It involves the study of the diseases of the oral cavity, its associated structures, and the identification of potential causes. Oral pathology is of particular importance to dentists and those working in the field of dental health, as it is critical to understand the diagnostic and treatment needs of patients who demonstrate signs of an oral pathology. Oral pathology encompasses a wide range of conditions that can affect oral tissues. Most commonly, oral pathology includes diseases such as caries (tooth decay), gingivitis (gum disease), and periodontitis (jaw bone infection). Depending on the presentation of symptoms, the oral infection may be classified as either acute or chronic, and each condition may require different treatments. Additionally, oral cancers, benign tumors, and other growths of the mouth may also be classified as oral pathology. In order to diagnose and treat oral pathology, an extensive evaluation must first take place. A full medical history is collected from the patient, and a full oral examination is completed. The evaluation typically includes an examination of the jaw, soft tissues, and dental x-rays. With the advent of oral pathology exams such as special imaging techniques, biopsies, and more, further information can be obtained to make an accurate diagnosis. Once a diagnosis is made, a treatment plan is put into place, which is based on the severity of the condition. Common treatments for oral pathology include tooth extraction, dental restoration, antibiotics, or oral surgeries. Depending on the condition, many different types of treatments may be used, and the patient should consult with their dentist or an experienced oral pathology specialist to determine the best course of action. Oral pathology is a complex field of dental science that requires specialized training and expertise. It is essential for dentists and those in the dental health field to understand the common conditions associated with oral pathology and to provide their patients with the necessary treatment options.