Nanotechnology is regarded as a vital technology of the twenty-first century, and it has sparked widespread interest. Green nanotechnology is a subset of green technology that combines green chemistry and green engineering, with the latter referring to the usage of plant-based materials. It uses less material and renewable inputs whenever possible, reducing energy and fuel use. Furthermore, nanotechnological products, processes, and applications are predicted to provide major contributions to environmental and climate protection by conserving raw materials, energy, and water, as well as lowering greenhouse gas emissions and hazardous waste. The key advantages of green nanotechnology are increased energy efficiency, less waste and greenhouse gas emissions, and reduced consumption of non-renewable raw resources.
The study of chemical reactions that occur in water, air, land, and biological environments, as well as the consequences of human activities on them, is known as environmental chemistry. Astrochemistry, atmospheric chemistry, environmental modelling, geochemistry, marine chemistry, and pollution remediation are among the topics covered. It's not to be confused with green chemistry, which aims to eliminate pollution at the source. Environmental Chemistry begins with an understanding of how the uncontaminated environment operates, as well as which chemicals exist naturally in what concentrations and with what consequences. Without this, evaluating the consequences of human chemical emissions on the environment would be difficult.
Pollution control is a term used in environmental engineering to describe a variety of methods for limiting environmental damage caused by the discharge of toxic chemicals and energies. Pollution control does not imply abandoning existing productive human activities, but rather rearranging them so that their detrimental effects do not outweigh their benefits.
Among the most important materials are those that are environmentally friendly. The development of ecofriendly polymeric materials, sometimes known as "green materials," is critical for both academia and business. Environmentally friendly polymers are made up of biodegradable or biobased polymers or composites (from renewable resources). Their carbon-neutral lifespan may minimize carbon dioxide emissions and reliance on petroleum-based products, lowering human impact on the environment. In our modern environment, materials are the stuff of economic life. They include industrial production's resource inputs and product outputs. A green material is one that accomplishes the most with the least, works in harmony with ecosystem processes, reduces the use of other materials and energy, and aids in the transition to a service-based economy.
Fossil fuels, such as petroleum, coal, and natural gas, account for around 78–80 percent of global commercial energy. These high-carbon sources have deleterious effects on our environment, including heath, land, air, and rain. In today's modern world, two or more renewable energy sources are integrated to create a hybrid renewable energy system (HRES). The major goal is to increase electrical power generation while lowering costs, reducing the detrimental effects of burning fossil fuels, and improving overall system efficiency. Unlike a single-renewable source, a hybridized system can be used to provide high-efficiency and reliable electricity to end-users. In stand-alone or grid-connected modes, a HERS can be used.
Climate change disrupts the Earth's temperature equilibrium and has far-reaching consequences for people and the ecosystem. Considering the global climate, it is such a complex system that is influenced by a wide range of causes, the consequences most often result in positive or negative feedback. Climate change is already having an impact. These consequences go far beyond a rise in temperature, affecting ecosystems and communities all across the globe. Things we rely on and cherish, such as water, electricity, transportation, wildlife, agriculture, ecosystems, and human health, are all being impacted by climate change. The more the global temperature rises, the more the climate system is affected, to the point where reversing the process is no longer conceivable, despite substantial efforts.
The conversion of light into energy using semiconducting materials that show the photovoltaic effect, a phenomenon investigated in physics, photochemistry, and electrochemistry, is known as photovoltaics (PV). PV technologies use a solid-state technology with practically little energy storage to transform a highly cyclical, variable, and sometimes unpredictable solar supply with no inherent storage into electricity. Solar power generation relies heavily on photovoltaic technologies. The importance of photovoltaic (PV) technology in long-term power generation has been recognized. During the past decade, photovoltaic technology has advanced at a breakneck pace. Photovoltaics are currently the energy source of choice for remote power needs and emergency power needs, even when grid electricity is available.
Biopolymers can be natural compounds formed by animals, plants, bacteria, and fungus, or chemically synthesized polymers made from biological components such as sugars, amino acids, oils, or natural lipids. The relevance of many biopolymers in living organisms is determined by how they interact with other polymers. Biopolymers have a wide range of applications in the food industries and biomedical science. Biopolymers are a broad group of polymers with numerous applications in food packaging, wrapping, and biomedical science.
Moldable plastic manufactured from chemical components obtained from or synthesized by microbes such as bacteria or genetically engineered plants are called bioplastics. Bioplastics, unlike typical plastics made from petroleum, are made from renewable resources, and certain bioplastics are biodegradable. Bioplastics currently account for a small percentage of total global plastic manufacturing. Low yields and high costs hamper commercial manufacturing methods.
Green chemistry attempts to create and manufacture cost-competitive chemical products and processes that reduce pollution at its source, achieving the highest degree of the pollution-prevention hierarchy. Green chemistry is expanding, with interest growing in university and industrial settings. The hunt for procedures that utilize fewer harmful chemicals, make less waste, and require less energy has progressed. However, there are still numerous obstacles to overcome in the transition to a more sustainable future. Green chemistry may help the environment at every stage of the life cycle, including material extraction, transformation, processing, and manufacturing; packaging, shipping, and distribution; consumer use; and end-of-life management.
Marine energy is one of the most widely available forms of renewable energy; the seas encompass 71% of the Earth's surface, which could theoretically meet all of the world's electricity needs. Researchers and industry developers from all over the world are interested in the promising future of marine energy. Wave, tidal stream, tidal range, ocean thermal, ocean current, run-of-river, and salinity are all examples of marine energy (or ocean energy) that can be harnessed from oceans. Marine energy will help to reduce global carbon emissions. The development of large-scale marine energy projects will have unforeseen environmental consequences, the majority of which have been thoroughly evaluated. Several phenomena, such as salinity gradient (energy derived from the difference in salt concentration between seawater and freshwater), temperature gradient, waves, and ocean currents, can be used to extract energy from the sea. Ocean waves, for example, have enormous promise as a renewable energy source.
Renewable energy is energy obtained from non-finite or non-exhaustible natural resources on the planet, such as wind and sunlight. Renewable energy is a viable alternative to traditional fossil-fuel-based energy, and it is generally less harmful to the environment. Renewable energy sources are seen as a viable alternative to fossil fuel depletion. Renewable energies are a great alternative for remote locations as the energy sources are plentiful (namely, solar radiation and wind) and the grid is unavailable. Hybrid renewable energy systems (HRESs), which are interconnected with a variety of renewable and nonrenewable energy sources and storage devices, have sparked widespread concern about how to deal with renewable energy's unpredictability, provide reliable electricity, and reduce reliance on fossil fuels.
Sustainable chemistry is another name for green chemistry. It's employed in the development of chemical products and processes that reduce the production of hazardous chemicals. Green chemistry considers all aspects of a chemical product's life cycle, including its creation, use, design, and eventual disposal. Green chemistry is extremely helpful in preventing pollution at the molecular level, providing creative scientific solutions and lowering the deleterious effects of chemical products on human and environmental health. It is crucial in the pharmaceutical industry to develop novel drug delivery methods that are less toxic and more useful, effective with minimal side effects, and could benefit millions of patients.
A smart grid is an electricity network that allows devices to communicate between providers and consumers to control demand, safeguard the distribution network, save energy, and save money. It is a digitally-based electrical network that uses two-way digital communication to supply electricity to users. This system enables for supply chain monitoring, analysis, control, and communication in order to improve efficiency, lower energy consumption and costs, and increase the energy supply chain's transparency and reliability.
Grid modernization has become a catch-all term for the improvements required in the power grid to handle all of the rapid technical advances occurring in electric power generation, transmission, and distribution.
When the continuous and discrete meet, hybrid systems arise. A hybrid system combines continuous and discrete inputs, outputs, states, or dynamics. Hybrid systems are formed when continuous physical processes are governed by finite-state logic (as in embedded control systems) or when topological and network limitations interact with continuous control (as in networked control systems).
The process of creating energy in the form of electricity and/or heat from the primary treatment of waste, or the processing of waste into a fuel source, is known as waste-to-energy (WtE) or energy-from-waste (EfW). WtE is an energy recovery method. Most WtE processes produce a combustible fuel commodity, such as methane, methanol, or ethanol, or generate electricity and/or heat directly through combustion. synthetic fuels, for example. Waste-to-energy systems or technologies come in a variety of sizes. The mass-burn method is the most popular, in which unprocessed municipal solid waste is burned in a massive incinerator with a boiler and generator for electricity production. Another sort of technology, which is less popular, processes municipal solid waste to remove the majority of non-combustible elements and produce refuse-derived fuel (RDF).
The chemistry of the natural environment and pollutant compounds in nature is known as environmental chemistry, whereas green chemistry focuses on reducing and preventing pollution at its source. Green chemistry is described as chemistry that is benign to the environment. Green chemistry is currently one of the most researched topics. Green chemistry study strives to reduce or eliminate the generation of harmful bi-products while maximizing desired products in an environmentally sustainable manner. The utilization of supercritical carbon dioxide, water as a green solvent, aqueous hydrogen peroxide as an oxidizing agent, and hydrogen in asymmetric synthesis are the three main developments in green chemistry. Green Chemistry reduces pollution by employing a number of environmentally friendly methods relative to conventional processes.
Bioremediation is a field of biotechnology that involves the removal of contaminants, pollutants, and toxins from soil, water, and other environments using living organisms such as microorganisms and bacteria. It is a technique that can be used to clean up contaminated groundwater or environmental issues like oil spills. Bioremediation works by encouraging the growth of bacteria that feed on pollutants such as oil, solvents, and pesticides for food and energy. Contaminants, as well as harmless gases like carbon dioxide, are converted by these microorganisms into small amounts of water.
Under normal environmental conditions, biodegradation is the decomposition of materials into environmentally acceptable products such as water, carbon dioxide, and biomass by naturally occurring microbes. The biodegradation process can be broken down into three stages: biodeterioration, biofragmentation, and assimilation.
A green process refers to specific steps that reduce environmental impacts across all processes involved in a product's manufacturing activities. In recent years, corporations, governments, and researchers have been increasingly interested in "green processes" and "green products," with the concept of sustainability becoming a focal point. Green process engineering (GPE) is a powerful method that may help to make hazardous and wasteful processes more sustainable for the sake of the economy, the environment, and society.
Nuclear fusion occurs in the sun, which produces solar energy. It is required for life on Earth and can be gathered for human purposes such as electricity generation. Any sort of energy generated by the sun is referred to as solar energy. Humans can use solar energy either directly or indirectly.
Environmental toxicology is a multidisciplinary science that studies the deleterious repercussions of diverse chemical, biological, and physical agents on living organisms. Green toxicology is the use of predictive toxicology in the creation and production of new, less dangerous materials and chemicals in a sustainable manner, resulting in less waste and exposure. “Green Toxicology,” which is based on “Green Chemistry” and “Green Engineering,” strives to design future manufacturing methods and safe chemical synthesis in terms of environmental and human health implications. The concepts of Green Toxicology, which are an inherent part of Green Chemistry, enhance the role of health-related issues for the benefit of customers and the environment, as well as being cost-effective for manufacturers.
Green method development is critical for analytical science, as the impact and role of green methods is quickly expanding across a wide range of analytical techniques. Green analytical procedures that use nanomaterials to prepare samples have the potential to gain a lot of traction in the field. Green chemistry professionals adopt or invent assessment methods that are efficient, produce little waste, and use chemicals that are safe for humans and the environment. Analytical chemists are crucial in determining the efficacy and safety of novel and current reactions and products. Analyzing only the smallest number of samples at the smallest sample size is an example of a green analytical chemistry practice. This can help save money by lowering the amount of solvent required and reducing waste. Analytical chemistry is critical for determining how environmentally friendly a reaction or product is, and there is a fast-increasing profession dedicated to ensuring that the analysis is safe and efficient.
Energy is a system's ability to complete work, but because energy comes in so many forms, it's difficult to come up with a comprehensive definition. In a nutshell, energy is a system's power to make things happen. It is an object's property that can be transferred from one object to another or changed into different forms, but it cannot be created or destroyed. Energy is then stored in sources of energy in forms that cannot be directly utilized, but living beings require energy to stay alive. A renewable energy source is made up of natural resources that have no negative impact on the environment. Renewable energy sources are abundant in nature and are long-term sustainable. These energy supplies can be renewed naturally and are environmentally friendly. Nonrenewable energy sources pollute the environment and have a finite supply. Nonrenewable resources can be extracted from the earth, but they will deplete over time.
Waste reduction, also known as source reduction, is the technique of consuming less material and energy in order to reduce waste and conserve natural resources. Waste reduction includes methods for preventing materials from turning waste before they reach the recycling stage. Reusing things like plastic and glass containers, purchasing more durable products, and using reusable products like dishrags instead of paper towels are all ways to reduce waste. It also entails economic savings
The percentage of waste created that is actually handled completely by the waste management and recycling system is known as waste capture. All waste material collected and sent to official treatment, recycling, and disposal facilities is included in it. Waste that is lost due to illegal burning, burying, or dumping at unauthorized locations inside a city or country is not included in the waste capture estimation or computation.
Recycling is the process of disassembling and reusing materials that would otherwise be discarded. Recycling is not only good for the environment, but it is also good for the economy. Recycling has been documented throughout history, but it has come a long way since Plato's day, when humanity repurposed broken tools and pottery when resources were scarce.
Materials science teaches us about the materials that things are made of and how they act. Materials engineering demonstrates how to apply knowledge to create and improve products. Materials science and engineering fuels innovation in everything from aircraft to health, in both research and industry. All other science and engineering disciplines rely on it.
Sustainable chemistry is critical for increasing energy efficiency in all types of buildings, including new construction and renovation projects. Advanced materials such as thermal insulation foams and panels for both internal and external use, coatings that either reflect heat or light, phase change materials that provide thermal inertia/storage for buildings and aid temperature control, and highly energy efficient lighting such as Organic Light-emitting Diodes are all examples of energy efficient building solutions (OLED). Materials that enable the integration of solar panels in buildings, resources that enable lightweight constructions, and the integration of renewable and biobased materials in construction products are also being investigated by the industry.
Since the end of World War II, agriculture has changed tremendously. Over the last four decades, a significant movement has formed to challenge the necessity of the high expenses and to propose innovative alternatives. In today's food production systems, the push for sustainable agriculture is gaining traction and acceptability. Sustainable agriculture refers to farming practices that are aware of and sensitive to the consequences of farming on the environment. Environmental health, economic profitability, and social equality are the three fundamental goals of sustainable agriculture. Agricultural sustainability is based on the idea that we must meet current needs without jeopardizing future generations' ability to meet their own.
Green chemistry is the development of chemical products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use of hazardous compounds. Green chemistry applies to a chemical product's entire life cycle, including its design, manufacture, usage, and disposal. Sustainable chemistry is another name for green chemistry. The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) defines green chemistry as "the design, development, and use of chemical products and processes to limit or eliminate the use and manufacture of harmful substances." Green chemistry is an interdisciplinary research field that combines knowledge from chemistry, chemical technology, biotechnology, molecular biology, ecology, and toxicity. The contributions from diverse disciplines can aid in the development of new and innovative technologies as well as environmentally friendly synthetic methods for chemical manufacturing.
A battery is a device that uses an electrochemical oxidation-reduction (redox) reaction to convert chemical energy stored in its active components directly into electric energy. Electrons are transferred from one material to another via an electric circuit in this type of reaction. A battery can be made up of one or many electrochemical cells (as in Volta's original pile). An electrolyte separates two electrodes in an electrochemical cell. A chemical reaction occurs between the electrode and the electrolyte when the anode and cathode of a battery are connected to a circuit. This reaction transfers electrons across the circuit and back to the cathode, where they undergo another chemical reaction. Primary batteries are disposable batteries that must be disposed of after usage. Rechargeable batteries are referred to as secondary batteries.
Nuclear energy is a clean, zero-emission energy source. Fission, the process of splitting uranium atoms to produce energy, is how it generates power. Without the toxic byproducts created by fossil fuels, the heat released by fission is used to create steam, which powers a turbine to generate electricity. Because of its high energy density and internalization of health and environmental costs, nuclear energy has a strong competitive position in terms of sustainable development. Nuclear energy has a number of sustainability advantages over other options, which explains its expanded role in practically all significant studies that detail viable pathways to long-term energy supply.
Green synthesis is defined as the synthesis of nanoparticles using environmentally friendly sources such as bacteria, fungi, and plants. These appealing green strategies are free of the drawbacks that come with traditional synthetic techniques, i.e. they are environmentally friendly. Green synthesis is regarded as a crucial method for reducing the negative impacts of standard nanoparticle synthesis methods routinely used in laboratories and industry. It is a quick and easy way to make a variety of physiologically active chemicals with different molecular configurations. Green synthesis reduces the risk of harmful residues being released into the environment by using environmentally friendly reagents as reducing and capping agents.
Global warming caused by human induced greenhouse gas emissions, as well as the resulting large-scale weather pattern alterations, are all part of climate change. Though there have been previous periods of climatic change, people have had an extraordinary impact on Earth's climate system and caused worldwide change since the mid-20th century. A long-term alteration in a place's temperature and usual weather patterns is referred to as climate change. Climate change can refer to a specific place or the entire globe.
CO2 and other air pollutants accumulate in the atmosphere, absorbing sunlight and solar radiation that has bounced off the earth's surface, resulting in global warming. Normally, this radiation would escape into space, but these chemicals, which may persist in the atmosphere for years to centuries, trap the heat and cause the earth to warm. Greenhouse gases are heat-trapping pollutants such as carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, water vapor, and synthetic fluorinated gases, and their impact is known as the greenhouse effect.
Alternative fuels are derived from non-petroleum sources. Biofuel, ethanol, methanol, hydrogen, coal-derived liquid fuels, electricity, natural gas, propane gas, or a synthetic transportation fuel are all examples of alternative fuels. Most are developed domestically lessening our reliance on imported oil, or from renewable resources. They emit less pollution than gasoline or diesel in many cases. Conventional fuels are not only harmful for the environment, but they're also inconvenient to use. People can now use alternative fuels to power their vehicles without needing to drive somewhere.
Catalysis is a term used in chemistry to describe the process of modifying the rate of a reaction by using a substance that isn't consumed by the reaction. Green chemistry is a broad term that refers to the development of chemical products and processes that decrease or eliminate the usage and creation of hazardous compounds. It encompasses all aspects of chemistry. Catalyst design could be ecologically friendly, and various forms of solid catalysts are now used in the chemical industry. The primary advantages of heterogeneous catalysts in the green synthesis of chemicals that can be recovered and recycled to perform the reaction instead of the additional reagents used by the initial process at each stage are that they can be recovered and recycled.
In cities all throughout the world, solid and hazardous waste management is a serious concern. Waste generated by numerous human activities, both industrial and household, can pose health risks and have a harmful influence on the environment without a comprehensive and efficient waste management program. Hazardous waste management entails lowering the amount of hazardous substances produced, processing hazardous wastes to reduce toxicity, and using sound technical controls to minimize or eliminate exposure to these wastes. Hazardous wastes might be solids, liquids, sludges, or contained gases, and they are primarily produced by chemical, manufacturing, and other industrial processes. They may cause damage as a result of insufficient storage, transportation, treatment, or disposal.
The environment has a large number of emerging pollutants (EPs) stemming from point and diffuse pollution. These are substances that aren't regularly monitored yet have the potential to infiltrate the environment and harm the ecosystem and human health. Extraction techniques have evolved more easily, rapidly, and inexpensive as analytical instrumentation has improved, allowing for the enrichment of analytes of interest from complicated environmental matrices. All of these advancements resulted in the discovery of several toxic substances at levels where they have a biological effect in the environment, as well as the identification of several new or previously overlooked or unknown pollutants.
Biomass refers to biological material obtained from live or recently living organisms. Agricultural byproducts and residues, woody waste products, and crops and microorganisms developed particularly for fuel are all examples of bioenergy sources. Biomass is described as living or recently deceased organisms, as well as any of their byproducts, whether plant or animal. Coal, oil, and other fossilized traces of life, as well as soils, are widely thought to be excluded by the term.
Bioenergy is a renewable energy source that is obtained from biomass. Bioenergy development could help to ensure long-term environmental and economic sustainability, as well as minimize the climate impact of fossil fuel use.
Efficient energy use, often known as energy efficiency, is the goal of reducing the quantity of energy necessary to provide goods and services while also reducing the consequences of pollution on the environment. There are numerous reasons to increase energy efficiency. Reduced energy consumption lowers energy expenses and may result in a financial savings for consumers if the energy savings offset any additional costs associated with deploying energy-efficient technologies. Reducing energy use is also seen as a means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. From the discovery and development of primary energy resources to power generation and oil refineries, to electricity grids, to final application in industry, buildings, and transportation, energy efficient technology may be found throughout the energy conversion chain.
Catalysis is the addition of a substance that is not consumed during the reaction to change the rate of a chemical reaction, usually an acceleration. The velocities at which chemical reactions occur are determined by a variety of factors, including the chemical composition of the reacting species and the external conditions to which they are exposed.
Biocatalysis is a chemical reaction that is carried out by enzymes or other biological catalysts between organic components. In the pharmaceutical industry, biocatalysis is commonly used to make small molecule therapeutics.
Organocatalysis (a combination of the terms "organic" and "catalyst") is a type of catalysis in which the rate of a chemical reaction is boosted by an organic catalyst called an "organocatalyst," which is made up of carbon, hydrogen, sulphur, and other non-metal elements found in organic compounds.
Inorganic catalysts, also known as heterogeneous catalysts, are metal-supported substrates that mimic the exquisite function of Nature's catalysts: enzymes. The metal connects to a solid through absorption.
Green chemistry is the synthesis of substances in such a way that they are safe, non-polluting, and environmentally friendly, requiring the least amount of resources and energy while producing little or no waste. Green chemistry is necessary to reduce the environmental impact of anthropogenic materials and the methods used to produce them. Green science is an appealing technique to cope with contamination aversion because it employs creative logical solutions to proven natural situations. Furthermore, greener approaches allow for energy efficiency, safety, and speed, while reducing the usage of reagents, solvents, and preservatives, all of which are dangerous to the environment and human health.