Bioremediation is a field of biotechnology that involves the removal of contaminants, pollutants, and toxins from soil, water, and other environments using living organisms such as microorganisms and bacteria. It is a technique that can be used to clean up contaminated groundwater or environmental issues like oil spills. Bioremediation works by encouraging the growth of bacteria that feed on pollutants such as oil, solvents, and pesticides for food and energy. Contaminants, as well as harmless gases like carbon dioxide, are converted by these microorganisms into small amounts of water.
Under normal environmental conditions, biodegradation is the decomposition of materials into environmentally acceptable products such as water, carbon dioxide, and biomass by naturally occurring microbes. The biodegradation process can be broken down into three stages: biodeterioration, biofragmentation, and assimilation.