RBC antigens and antibodies related with blood transfusions are studied in immunohematology. There are about 230 types of antigens on the surface of RBCs, which can be divided into two categories based on their chemical structure: carbohydrates and polypeptides. Antigen-antibody responses and comparable phenomena as they relate to the pathophysiology and clinical symptoms of blood disorders are studied in immunohematology, a field of haematology and transfusion medicine. An immunohematologist is a professional who works in this discipline. Blood typing, cross-matching, and antibody identification are among their daily responsibilities.
Stem-cell research is the study of the characteristics of stem cells and their potential applications in medicine. Comprehension of the qualities of stem cells, which are the source of all tissues, aids our understanding of the development and homeostasis of the healthy and diseased body. Hematopoietic stem cells are the only stem cells that are currently used to cure disease. Adult stem cells that generate blood cells can be detected in bone marrow. In the bone marrow, every type of blood cell begins as a stem cell. Stem cells are immature cells that have the ability to mature and behave as different blood cells.