Analytical gadgets that turn a biological response into an electrical signal are known as biosensors. Biosensor fabrication, materials, transducing devices, and immobilisation procedures all necessitate multidisciplinary study in chemistry, biology, and engineering. Biosensor materials are divided into three types based on their mechanisms: biocatalytic, which includes enzymes, bio affinity, which includes antibodies and nucleic acids, and microbe-based, which includes microorganisms.
The application of electrical engineering principles to biology, medicine, behaviour, or health is known as bioelectronics. It develops innovative devices or processes for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, as well as patient rehabilitation and health improvement. It advances fundamental concepts, creates knowledge from the molecular to the organ systems levels, and develops innovative devices or processes. Pacemakers and almost the whole medical imaging industry are the most common examples of bioelectronics.