Casting is a manufacturing method in which a liquid substance is poured into a mould with a hollow hole of the required shape and subsequently solidified. A casting is a solidified object that is ejected or broken out of the mould to complete the process.
Rolling is a metal forming process that involves passing metal stock between one or more pairs of rolls to reduce thickness, uniform thickness, and/or impart a desired mechanical attribute.
Forming, also known as metal forming, is a metal working method for shaping metal parts and objects through mechanical deformation; the workpiece is reshaped without removing or adding material, and its mass remains constant.
Since the time of the ancient Mesopotamians, forging, a metal shaping technique that uses compressive, confined forces, has been a standard metal fabrication technique.
Heat treatment is a regulated technique that changes the microstructure of metals and alloys like steel and aluminium to impart qualities that improve the component's working life, such as increased surface hardness, temperature resistance, ductility, and strength.
Annealing is a heat treatment procedure that alters a material's physical and occasionally chemical properties to improve ductility and reduce hardness, making it easier to work with.