Carbon nanostructures are artificially formed structures with nanoscale scale, and carbon nanostructure changes have piqued the interest of numerous researchers since their discovery in the early 1990s. Carbon nanostructures are a key tool for creating advanced polymer composite materials.
A one-atom-thick layer of carbon atoms organised in a hexagonal lattice is known as graphene. It is the building block of graphite (which is used, among other things, in pencil tips), but graphene is a fascinating substance in and of itself, with a slew of astounding features that have earned it the moniker "wonder material" on numerous occasions.
Single-layer materials, often known as 2D materials in materials science, are crystalline solids made up of a single layer of atoms. These materials show promise in several applications.