Nanophotonics is that the method to study the properties of materials in nanometer ranges by means of light, to regulate optical waves with structured materials smaller than their wavelength, or to switch optical properties of matter by the controlled optical fields.
Photonic crystals are macroporous materials with interesting properties, especially optical properties.
Construction strategies of Photonic crystals:
1. One-dimensional photonic crystals: In a one-dimensional photonic crystal, layers of various dielectric constant could also be deposited or adhered together to make a bandgap in a single direction. A Bragg grating is an example of this kind of photonic crystal. One-dimensional photonic crystals are often either isotropic or anisotropic, with the latter having potential use as an optical switch.
2. Two-dimensional photonic crystals: In two dimensions, holes could also be drilled in a substrate that's transparent to the wavelength of radiation that the bandgap is planned to block. Triangular and square lattices of holes are successfully employed.
3. Three-dimensional photonic crystals
There are several structure types that are constructed: