Nonlinear integrated optics is defined as the implementation of nonlinear optical interactions in planar and channel waveguides.
It is a technology that aims at constructing so-called integrated optical devices or photonic integrated circuits or planar lightwave circuits, containing several or many optical components which are combined to fulfill some more or less complex functions.
That components are often optical filters, modulators, amplifiers, lasers and photodetectors. They canbe fabricated on the surface of some crystalline material such as silicon, silica, or LiNbO3 and connected with waveguides.
Optical integrated circuits: These have been developed to replace electrical integrated circuits or conventional optical signal processing systems composed of relatively large discrete elements.
1. Increased bandwidth
2. Expanded frequency (wavelength) division multiplexing
3. Low-loss couplers, including bus access types
4. Expanded multipole switching (number of poles, switching speed)
5. Smaller size, weight, lower power consumption
6. Batch fabrication economy
7. Improved reliability
8. Improved optical alignment, immunity to vibration