An optical instrument is a device that processes light waves (or photons), either to enhance a picture for viewing or to investigate and determine its characteristic properties. Common examples include periscopes, microscopes, telescopes, and cameras.
The optical transducer converts light into electrical quantity. They are also called as photoelectric transducers. It converts light rays into an electronic signal. The purpose of an optical transducer is to measure a physical quantity of light and, based upon the kind of transducer, then translates it into a form that's readable by an integrated measuring device.
Optical transducers range from simple absorbance, luminescence, reflectance, fluorescence, chemiluminescent, and bioluminescent determinations to the utilization of more complex optical fibers in various procedures, including automated instrumentation and fluidic methodology.
Optical materials in the most general sense are defined as materials whose function is to change or control electromagnetic waves in the ultraviolet (UV), visible, or infrared (IR) spectral regions.
Such materials are fabricated into optical elements like lenses, mirrors, windows, prisms, polarizers, detectors, and modulators, etc., and that they are often used to refract, reflect, transmit, disperse, polarize, detect and transform light.