The studies are aimed to the development of technology for production of lamb enriched with minerals in organic form, packed in biodegradable film, providing the preservation of essential nutrients and quality as well as reduction in the loss of raw material weight.
One of the ways for production of lamb enriched with trace elements in organic form is in-vivo-optimization of diets with essential nutrients. The main advantage of in-vivo-enrichment of lamb is elimination of the risk of a negative effect (overdose), since the introduction of the additive is already "approved" by animals.
The experiment was conducted on the base of production-training farm "Experimental Animal Husbandry" at Saratov State Vavilov Agrarian University. For experiment four groups of experimental animals were formed in a flock by the method of analogues. There were 10 heads of four-month-old lambs of Edilbay breed in each group. Feed additives were introduced in addition to the main diet, according to the product instructions, once a day combined with the mixed feed. Dose assignment of "Yoddar-Zn" was 100 g per 1 ton of the mixed feed; assignment of "DAFS-25" was at the rate of 1.6 mg per 1 kg of the mixed feed as part of premixes. The control group received only mixed feed in the amount of 250-300 g per head per day in addition to the main diet; experimental group I – mixed feed + feed additive "Yoddar-Zn"; experimental group II – mixed feed + organic selenium preparation "DAFS-25"; experimental group III – mixed feed + "Yoddar-Zn" + "DAFS-25".
Within the studies it has been found that the use of selenium and iodine-containing feed additives ("Yoddar-Zn" and "DAFS-25") in the diets of small cattle stimulates their development, increases resistance and productivity, allows obtaining lamb enriched with organic forms of zinc, selenium and iodine, which is of important medical and social importance for the prevention of dysmicroelementosis of the population.
It is proved that the hematological parameters of animals raised with the use of enriched diets were within the limits of physiological norms. It was noted that the hemoglobin content in the blood was higher in the ram-lambs of experimental groups (P>0.99). The total protein concentration in the same period was slightly lower, and this is probably due to more intensive processes of protein metabolism and better growth energy. The significant differences in erythrocyte content in the blood between the groups have not been established.
The ram-lambs of the experimental groups have a higher phagocytic number: by 5.1 (P>0.95) in the experimental group I, and by 9.4 and 14.5% in the experimental groups II and III (P>0.95), (P>0.99), respectively; as well as a significant superiority in phagocytic activity and phagocytic intensity of animals of the experimental groups II and III. This indicates their higher resistance to adverse environmental factors in comparison with the animals of the control group.
The form of organic iodine was reliably identified and its amount in the form of iodotyrosine was controlled. It is confirmed that due to its covalently bound form, organic iodine is able to manifest diverse biological properties, including through iodine-containing hormones – thyroxine and triiodothyronine, involved in the regulation of all metabolic processes in the human body. Monitoring of the trace elements content showed that the content of zinc, iodine and selenium in lamb is directly dependent on the amount in the diet, and more significant localization of them was recorded in the meat of ram-lambs of the experimental group III.
The use of a film-forming coating on the base of sodium alginate reduces the mass loss of raw materials (by reducing the rate of moisture evaporation), creates a certain barrier to the penetration of oxygen and other substances from the outside, in addition, does not pollute the environment.
The developed film coating on the base of sodium alginate has a homogeneous structure, has structural resistance and a barrier effect against the action of air oxygen and microorganisms. Biodegradable film does not lose its structure-forming properties after cold treatment and there is no need to remove it before use. An important advantage of biodegradable film is environmental safety and low cost.
Biodegradable films on the base of sodium alginate are safe for humans due to their natural origin. Sodium alginate is not only a biodegradable biopolymer, which will solve the problem of packaging recycling, obtaining an environmentally friendly biodegradable food film coating with a longer shelf life of products and at the same time preserving its quality, but also edible, i.e. there is no need to remove the coating from the products, on the contrary, its use in food helps to cleanse the body removing heavy metals and radio-nuclides. The use of food coating on the base of sodium alginate for storage of chilled lamb contributes to improving the environmental situation, increasing the shelf life of raw materials and enhancing its quality.
The research was carried out on a basis of the grant of the Russian Scientific Foundation 19-76-10013 "Development and introduction of technology for production and storage of environmentally safe lamb enriched with essential trace elements».
Giro Tatiana took her post-graduate and doctoral courses at the FGBNU V.M. Gorbatov All Russian Meat Research Institute (VNIIMP) (Moscow). In 2006 she received the degree of Doctor of technical sciences, in 2009 - the academic status of Professor. Under her supervision 8 Candidate’s dissertations were defended. She has published more than 400 articles in scientific journals.
She presented papers at international congresses: in Serbia (Belgrade) 2007, China (Beijing) 2007, South Africa (Cape Town) 2008, South Korea (Seoul) 2010, Canada (Montreal) 2012. She was a member of the jury of The International Specialized Exhibition of the Meat Industry IFFA – Internationale Fleisch Fach Ausstellung (Germany, Frankfurt on the Main). Innovative projects presented at the IFFA were awarded four gold medals. She headed a team of University students at the international competition "TROPFELIA Europpe" (France, Paris, Germany, Cologne), worked as a member of the jury of the same competition.