As the effects of climate change have become more apparent, environmentalists and concerned legislators have switched away from sustainability rhetoric and refocused environmental concerns on adaptation and resilience. While sustainability and conservation are concerned with conserving a pristine environment, resilience and adaptation are concerned with protecting people and ecosystems from the effects of climate change.
Adaptation refers to changes in ecological, social, or economic systems as a result of existing or anticipated climatic stressors, as well as their ramifications or consequences. It refers to adjustments in procedures, practises, and structures that are made to mitigate the effects of climate change or to take advantage of the opportunities that come with it. To put it another way, countries and communities must create adaptation solutions and take action to respond to current climate change consequences as well as plan for future repercussions. Adaptation solutions come in a variety of shapes and sizes, based on a community's, business's, organization's, countries, or region's specific situation.
The ability of a system to absorb, withstand, and bounce back after a negative occurrence is known as resilience. In the context of the environment, towns are positioned to withstand natural disasters and other severe effects of climate change through a combination of policy, infrastructure, services, transportation, energy infrastructure, and planning.