Environmental science combines the subjects of ecology, biology, zoology, oceanography, atmospheric science, soil science, geology, chemistry, and others in an interdisciplinary study of how natural and human-made processes interact and affect Earth's diverse biomes. During the Enlightenment, environmental science arose from the sciences of natural history and medicine. It now offers an integrated, quantitative, and interdisciplinary approach to environmental systems research. For a better understanding of human relationships, beliefs, and policies toward the environment, environmental studies combine more social sciences. Environmental engineering is concerned with the use of design and technology to improve the condition of the environment in all aspects. Although the terms "environmental science" and "ecology" are sometimes interchanged, ecology refers solely to the study of organisms and their interactions with one another, as well as their interactions with the environment.
Any substance, service, or information from the environment that is valuable to society is considered an environmental resource. This could relate to anything that people find valuable in their environment. Environmental and Resource Science is an interdisciplinary field that studies how organisms interact with their environmental surroundings.