The study of climate and how it changes over time is known as climatology. This science aids people in comprehending the atmospheric conditions that generate weather patterns and temperature fluctuations over time. A climatology is a collection of gridded fields for several variables, most commonly sea water temperature and salinity, over a time period of several years.
Climatology has progressed in tandem with our ability to detect and measure the system's various elements, such as fundamental temperature and precipitation, cloud kinds, humidity, wind speed and velocity, barometric pressure, soil moisture, and many more. At present, scientists use a combination of devices that make surface-based and upper-air (i.e., radiosondes or rawindsones) measurements at various sites, as well as satellites that monitor large geographic areas, to monitor weather and climate. This current topic of study is considered a subfield of physical geography, which is one of the Earth sciences. Oceanography and biogeochemistry are increasingly included in climatology. The examination of observations and modelling of the physical processes that determine the climate are the basic methodologies used by climatologists. The study of climate variability, climate change mechanisms, and modern climate change are the key research issues.