The genetic foundation of inter individual variability in drug response in terms of efficacy and toxicity is referred to as pharmacogenomics. Pharmacogenomics aspires to reinvent disease management and patient stratification, with clear implications not only for patient quality of life but also for lowering overall health-care costs. The latter has far-reaching ramifications in both clinical and public health settings. Whether it's rare variants, common variants that don't always correlate to a symptom, or variants of unknown significance, pharmacogenomic findings vastly outstrip the field's ability to make sense of them. Pharmacogenomics is a branch of pharmacology that studies the links between genes and pharmacological effects, with the goal of “personalizing” medical treatment.